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Folders and Functions in the Linux File System

by elitelaunch
Linux Dosya Sistemindeki Klasörler ve İşlevleri

The famous penguin with the Linux logo, Tux.

In this article, we explain the folders in the Linux file system and their functions.

Folders in the Linux file system, especially Linux It has been a matter of curiosity for those who are new to the universe. There are folders with very different names compared to other operating systems. With this article, we will eliminate all the question marks in your mind about these folders.

Why are the folders and structure of the Linux file system different compared to Windows and macOS?

To answer this question, we must first look at the history of Linux. Linux, From UNIX It was written inspired by and UNIX It is an operating system designed taking into account that hundreds of users will be connected to a computer that occupies room size in the 60-70s. In those years on computers gigantic and more than one Storage units such as tape drives were used.

This system is now on our computers and even on our mobile phones and these modern devices have one or two storage units. But we can perform the same functions as computers of years ago. So too UNIX principle it is still valid and works faster as computers speed up.

Linux folders overview

Seeing these folders on a diagram will help us understand their functions better.

Let's find out the folders in the Linux file system!
The directory sequence of the Linux file system.


To make changes to folders other than the root directory and the “home” folder, you need the root account privileges. You can use the “sudo” command for this, or if you are going to do a long process, you will use the root account’s privileges as long as the terminal is open by typing “sudo su”.

Root Directory

Our root directory UNIX and Linux systems root user We shouldn’t confuse it with (root, superuser). One is the directory containing all the files and folders, the other is the one that has all the rights of the system. user is the account.

As seen in the diagram above, at the top “/There is a directory named ”. This directory is our root directory. The root directory is the main directory in which all folders reside. Your entire computer, from devices to your documents, is under this directory. Because UNIXIn systems based on where everything is a file (everything is a file) principle has been adopted.

“Bin” folder

Inside this folder, what we have installed (or came with our system) applications are available. You can run these applications via the terminal or any menu.

“Sbin” folder

Again like a “thousand” application folder but it contains system applications. Most known commands are the applications here.

“Boot” folder

It contains the files your computer needs to get started. Your Linux kernel, your bootloader and tools such as Memtest86 + are in this folder.

“Cdrom” folder

In the old days of Linux, it was a folder whose contents we could see when a CD was inserted into the CD drive, now only backward compatibility purpose is used with, because instead of “media”Folder is in use.

“Dev” folder

In this folder, connected to your computer devices exist. As you remember, in systems working with UNIX principle since everything is a file we mentioned.

This folder is especially useful if you are going to print data from one device to another device using the DD method.

“Etc” folder

Your configurations are hosted in this folder. A folder you will visit frequently whenever you want to change a setting.

“Home” folder

Users such as documents, music, videos, pictures, desktop personal data is the hosting folder.

Folders starting with “lib”

These folders contain the library files. Like DLL system in Windows, in systems with UNIX architecture “shared library“There is a system.

“Media” folder

When you install a storage unit automatically is the folder in which it will appear.

“Opt” folder

Some closed source code It is a directory preferred by software to host their own files.

“Tmp” folder

Temporary files are found and usually deleted when the system restarts.

“Usr” folder

In this folder almost everything you are looking for you can find. Most things from icon packs to “shared libraries” are here.

Some users think that this folder is the user folder because of its name, but the user folder is not, “universal system resourcesAbbreviation for “(general system resources)”.

“Var” folder

In this folder, you will be able to find files such as logs, backups. Some people prefer to put this in another segment.


If you want to work on Linux, it might be a good idea to start with UNIX basics. So you can have a general idea about operating systems.

If you have a question mark in your head, Technopat Social You can send your questions via.

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